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1. creativity

Question: “building a ‘magical kingdom’ may help develop 1…………………”


– building a ‘magical kingdom’ = this fantasy

– develop = take her first steps towards


– The phrase “magical kingdom” is put in the double quotes, implying it is emphasized as a phrase used in the text. As we can easily locate the phrase in the first sentence of the passage, we should pay attention to the first paragraph. What we need to focus on now is what the fantasy of building a magical kingdom can help develop, referring to its benefits in the future. The answer should be mentioned in the next sentences, after describing what building a magical kingdom is like. In those sentences, “take first steps towards her capacity” can be understood as “develop”, and it refers to “creativity”.

2. rules

Question: board games involve 2………………. and turn-taking

Keywords: board games, turn-taking = takes turn


– We have to find information referring to board games. It is in the last sentence of paragraph 2 (we use scanning skills to find the word “board game” in the passage): “When they tire of this and settle down with a board game, she’s learning how to follow the rules and take turns with a partner”. So with board games, a child can learn to “follow the rules” and “take turns” (it means “turn-taking”, which is mentioned already as one of the two things involved). As the word needed should be a noun (after “involve”) and the task asks for one word only, it must be “rules”.

3. cities

Question: Recent changes affecting children’s play: populations of 3………………. have grown. 


– Recent changes = in changing times

– Populations = the people in the world

– have grown = over half


– Remember that question 3 belongs to the section “Recent changes affecting children’s play”, so we should focus on the part of the passage where the author mentions “changes”, which is paragraph 5. Here, the author refers to “changing times”. “Population” means “the number of people or a species living in a certain area”. The word needed here should be a noun referring to a place or a species. In paragraph 5, the writer confirms that “over half of people in the world now live in cities”, implying the number of people living in cities has increased/ grown compared to the past.

4. Traffic

Question: opportunities for free play are limited due to fear of 4………………..


– opportunities for free play = outdoor play

– limited = curtailed

– fear = perceptions of risk

5. Crime

Question: fear of 5………………

Keywords: fear = wish to protect their children from being the victims of crime

6. competition

Question: increased 6……………. in schools


– increased = greater

– in schools = in academic learning and schools


– The author mentions “Opportunities for free play” by saying that they “are becoming increasingly scarce” and “outdoor play is curtailed” in the second and third sentence in paragraph 5. “Curtail” means to reduce something with the result that we can no longer continue to do it. So we can assume it is replaced by the word “limited” here. Therefore, we should focus on those sentences to find the reasons for that. Reasons which are listed include “perception of risk to do with traffic”, “parents wish to protect their children from being victims of crime” and “greater competition in academic learning and schools”. “Perception of risk” and “wish to protect their children from something” should be considered as fears. Therefore, “traffic” and “crime” are the answers for Question 4 and 5 (One word only and it should be a noun – after preposition “of”). The third reason mentioned is “greater competition” in schools and “greater” can be understood as “increased”, so the answer for Question 6 is “competition”

7. evidence

Question: it is difficult to find 7……………… to support new policies


– difficult to find = lack

– support new policies = base policies on


– New policies are mentioned in paragraph 6, so we should pay attention here. As the word “difficult” is mentioned, we need to look for difficulties or disadvantages of supporting new policies. At first, the author mentions all the advantages, then he uses “but”, implying an added statement, usually something different from what he said before, so we can assume the next statement will be a disadvantage so we should focus here. “But what we often lack is the evidence to base policies on”. The phrase “to base policies on” can be considered as “to support new policies”, and “what they lack” means “it is difficult to find”, so the answer is “evidence”.

8. life

Question: research needs to study the impact of play on the rest of the child’s 8…………….


– research need to study = very little data on

– the rest of = later


– As the word needed is put behind a possessive adjective (child’s), we need to look for a noun referring to the child. Paragraph 7 talks about the long – term impact of play. In the last sentence, the author explains that “long-term impact of play” means “the impact of play on the child’s later life” while “later” refers to “the rest”. Therefore, what is needed to fill in the blank here is “life”.

9. True

Question: Children with good self-control are known to be likely to do well at school later on.


– Children with good self-control = the ability to self-regulate.

– are know to be likely = has been shown to be.

– to do well = a key predictor.

– school = academic performance.

Explain: Find the paragraph beginning: “In a study carried out by Baker….” This was a study of very young pre-school children. The study found that “children with greater self-control solved problems more quickly..” According to the next paragraph, play is therefore very significant for education, “because the ability to self-regulate (= to control oneself) has been shown to be a key predictor of academic performance”. So, developing good self-control through play means that children are likely to do well academically in school later on

10. True

Question: The way a child plays may provide information about possible medical problems.


– The way a child play = playful behaviour

– provide information = give us important clues

– possible medical problems = their wellbeing; the diagnosis of…


– Find the paragraph beginning: “Gibson adds…” This is about the way that children play or, in other words, “playful behaviour”. We are told that this can indicate the healthy social and emotional development of children. Observing how children play “can give us important clues (= provide information) about their well-being and can even be useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism”. Autism is an example of a medical problem. Therefore, a child’s behaviour during play may give information to help identify medical problems.

11. Not given

Question: Playing with dolls was found to benefit girls’ writing more than boys’ writing.

Keywords: dolls, benefit, writing

Explain: Find the paragraph beginning: “Whitebread’s recent research…” This is about using play to support children’s writing, because “Children wrote longer and better-structured stories when they first played with dolls representing characters in the story”. So, playing with dolls benefits the writing of children in general, but we are not told if this benefits girls more than boys.

12. False

Question: Children had problems thinking up ideas when they first created the story with Lego.


– had problems = didn’t know

– thinking up ideas/ created the story = know what to write about

Explain: In the same paragraph, we find the key words: “In the latest study, children first created their story with Lego with similar results. Many teachers commented that they had always previously had children saying they didn’t know what to write about. With the Lego building, however, not a single child said this….” So, using Lego to think up ideas (= create their story), children then had no problems with ideas for their stories.

13. True

Question: People nowadays regard children’s play as less significant than they did in the past.


– children’s play = play

– significant = importance

– less = has been lost

Explain:  We find the answer in the last paragraph: “Somehow the importance of play has been lost in recent decades. It’s regarded as something trivial, or even as something negative that contrasts with work.” In recent decades, attitudes to play have, therefore, changed. It is now considered to be something unimportant or even negative. In contrast, people in the past thought that it was more important.

14. E

Question: a description of how people misused a bike-sharing scheme.

Keywords: people, misused, bike-sharing, scheme

Explain: Paragraph E states that: “The system was prone to vandalism and theft”. This means that people damaged and stole bikes from the scheme, thus both can be called actions of misusing the scheme. Therefore, the answer is E.

15. C

Question: an explanation of why a proposed bike-sharing scheme was turned down.

Keywords: explanation, proposed, bike-sharing scheme, turned down


– Paragraph C states that: “the council unanimously rejected the plan”.

– Turn down = rejected, Scheme = plan

– The author further explains that the council turned down the plan because they believed bikes were a thing of the past. Thus, paragraph C gives an explanation of why a proposed bike-sharing scheme was turned down.

16. F

Question: a reference to a person being unable to profit from their work

Keywords: reference, person, unable, work, profit = benefit

Explain: We can find information relating to profit in both paragraphs E and F. In paragraph E, we know that the chip card wasn’t profitable, but it is irrelevant to, a person being unable to profit from their work. In paragraph F, however, we know that Schimmelpennink financially “didn’t really benefit from it” (it refers to his bike-sharing programme). Thus, Schimmelpennink didn’t profit from his work.

17. C

Question: an explanation of the potential savings a bike-sharing scheme would bring

Keywords: explanation, potential, savings, bike-sharing scheme

Explain: Schimmelpennink stated in paragraph C that his bike-sharing scheme “would cost the municipality only 10% of what it contributed to public transport per person per kilometre”. This suggests that the benefits of the scheme were much greater than the cost, hence it would save a lot of resources. This can be considered “the potential savings” of this scheme. Therefore, the answer is C.

18. A

Question: a reference to the problems a bike-sharing scheme was intended to solve.

Keywords: reference, bike-sharing scheme, intended, solve, problems = threats

Explain: The purposes of a bike-sharing scheme are mentioned in paragraph A: “the scheme…was an answer to the perceived threats of air pollution and consumerism”. Hence, air pollution and consumerism are two problems that the scheme was intended to solve.

19. B

Question: Which TWO of the following statements are made in the text about the Amsterdam bike-sharing scheme of 1999?

D   It was made possible by a change in people’s attitudes.

Keywords: two, statements, Amsterdam, bike-sharing, scheme, 1999

20. D


B   It failed when a partner in the scheme withdrew support.


– withdrew support = has lost interest

– partner = business partner

Explain 19, 20:

– While there are a few mentions of the Amsterdam bike-sharing scheme in the text, we need to find information about the 1999 scheme, not the initial one. We can find this in paragraph D onwards.

– Schimmelpennink and his scheme “succeeded in arousing the interest of the Dutch Ministry of Transport”, so A is incorrect.

– Schimmelpennink said “times had changed”, referring to people’s change in attitudes towards the environment. This, combined with the success of the Danish bike-sharing scheme, led to the introduction of the new Amsterdam scheme in 1999. In other words, it was made possible by a change in people’s attitudes. Thus, D is one correct answer.

– Paragraph E mentions several problems faced by the scheme: vandalism, theft, and most importantly, Postbank’s withdrawal from the scheme. We know this because: “Postbank decided to abolish the chip card” and “the business partner had lost interest”. This was “the biggest blow” to the scheme, and the scheme could not continue. Therefore, B is correct.

21. E

Question: Which TWO of the following statements are made in the text about Amsterdam today?

E   The city has a reputation as a place that welcomes cyclists.

Keywords: two, statements, Amsterdam, today

22. D


  A bike-sharing scheme would benefit residents who use public transport.

Keywords: residents who use public transport = people who travel on the underground.

Explain 21-22:

– We can easily find the phrase, Amsterdam today at the beginning of paragraph G.

– “38% of all trips are made by bike”, but we cannot be sure that more trips in the city are made by bike than by any other form of transport, so C is incorrect.

– “it is regarded as one of the two most cycle-friendly capitals in the world”, which means Amsterdam is known as a place that welcomes cyclists. Thus, E is correct.

– Schimmelpennick also mentions the need for a bike-sharing scheme in Amsterdam today because “people who travel on the underground don’t carry their bike around. But often they need additional transport to reach their final destination”. People using the underground are, residents who use public transport, and they would benefit from the scheme. Thus, D is correct.

23. Activists

Question: The first bike-sharing scheme was the idea of the Dutch group Provo. The people who belonged to this group were 23……………


– was the idea of = came up with the idea

– the Dutch group = a group of Dutch


– “This group” refers to the Dutch group, Provo. We can find information about Provo in paragraph A. Here, it is stated that Provo “was a group of Dutch activists”, so “activists” is the answer.

24. Consumerism

Question: They were concerned about damage to the environment and about 24…………….

Keywords: damage to environment = perceived threats of air pollution


– Provo activists believed that the scheme would help to deal with air pollution and consumerism. This means that they are concerned about these two problems, and suggested a solution. Because air pollution can be understood as damage to the environment, the missing word in the blank is consumerism.

25. Leaflets

Question: As well as painting some bikes white, they handed out 25……………… that condemned the use of cars.


– handed out = distributed

– condemned = describing

– the use of cars = the dangers of cars


– The word “condemn” means “disapprove”. It is stated that Provo activists “distributed leaflets describing the dangers of cars”, meaning these leaflets disapproved (or condemned) the use of cars.

26. Police

Question: However, the scheme was not a great success: almost as quickly as Provo left the bikes around the city, the 26…………….. took them away.


– as quickly as = as soon as

– took away = remove

– left the bikes around the city = the white bikes were distributed around the city


– Need N: the + N

– Paragraph B describes the scheme’s problems, one of which is that the police removed the bikes “as soon as the white bikes were distributed around the city”. Therefore, it is clear that the answer is “police”.

27. E

Question: Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain.

Keywords: hotel managers, encourage good staff to remain

– to know = to understand

– encourage good staff to remain = increase employee satisfaction and retention

Explain: Paragraph 8 refers to the practices that hotel management must develop “to inspire and retain competent employees”. The last sentence of paragraph 8 states that “it is beneficial for hotel managers to understand what practices are most favourable to increase employee satisfaction and retention”. To increase employee retention means to encourage employees to remain. This is the statement of Enz and Siguaw (2000), so the answer is E.

28. D

Question: The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.


– the actions of managers = provide recognitions + motivate employees + remove obstacles

– they shouldn’t move = more obligated to stay with the company

Explain: According to Ng and Sorensen in paragraph 5: “employees feel more obligated to stay with the company” if the manager does certain things, such as: providing recognition, motivating group work, and removing obstacles. These are “actions of managers”, and these actions make employees feel that they should stay with the company and shouldn’t move to another employer. So D is the correct answer.

29. B

Question: Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.


– help workers improve their skills = enables developing and drawing out the full potential of people

– little is done = does not appear to be designed to

30. D

Question: Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.


– are less likely to change jobs = more obligated to stay

– cooperation = employees to work together

– is encouraged = motivate

Explain: As we have learned in question 28, Ng and Sorensen suggest in paragraph 5 that motivating employees to work together, as well as other actions, is a way to keep staff from changing jobs.

31. C

Question: Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.


– Among the many cited reasons = not the only reason

– Low compensation = dissatisfaction with pay

– Change jobs = employee turnover

Explain: In the last sentence of paragraph 4, the author cited Madouras et al. to mention several reasons which result in high employee turnover in hospitality industry. These reasons include “low compensation”, or in other words, low pay. High employee turnover means that a high percentage of workers leave the company and are replaced by new employees. Thus, it can be understood that dissatisfaction with low pay is, along with other reasons, why hospitality workers change jobs frequently. The answer is C.

32. Yes

Question: One reason for high staff turnover in the hospitality industry is poor morale.


– One reason = Among many cited reason

– poor morale = compromised employee morale and attitudes

Explain: Paragraph 4 refers to “high employee turnover” in the hospitality industry. As we know from question 31, “compromised employee morale” is given in paragraph 4 as one reason for high employee turnover in the hospitality industry. The word “compromised” here suggests that employees are not very motivated to do their work, so we can also call it “poor morale”. The correct answer is YES.

33. No

Question: Research has shown that staff have a tendency to dislike their workplace.


– staff = employees

– their workplace = many aspects of their work

– Tendency = predisposition

– Dislike = view negatively

– Workplace = work environment


According to Spector et al in paragraph 6, “no evidence exists to support this hypothesis”. The said hypothesis is that employees have “a predisposition to view their work environment negatively”. In other words, employees have a tendency to dislike their workplace. Because there is no evidence, it cannot be said that this hypothesis is shown or proven by research. The answer is, therefore, NO.

34. No

Question: An improvement in working conditions and job security makes staff satisfied with their jobs.


– improvement in working conditions and job security

– just fulfilling these needs

Explain: We can find information relating to “working conditions and job security” in paragraph 9. According to Herzberg, when these are not good, employees may be dissatisfied. However, fulfilling factors like working conditions and job security alone “does not result in satisfaction” so the statement contradicts the writer’s claims.

35. Not given

Question: Staff should be allowed to choose when they take breaks during the working day.

Keywords: take breaks = allowing adequate breaks

Explain: In the last paragraph, it is stated that “allowing adequate breaks during the working day” is a way to retain good staff. However, this does not mean that staff should be allowed to choose when they take breaks. The statement is therefore NOT GIVEN.

36. Restaurants

Question: Tews, Michel and Stafford carried out research on staff in an American chain of 36……………


– carried out = conducted

– research = a study

– American = the United States


– Using the skim and scan skill, we can locate the information about Tews, Michael and Stafford’s study in paragraph 11. The study (research) focused on “staff from a chain of themed restaurants in the United States”. Thus, the answer is clearly “restaurants”

37. Performance

Question: They discovered that activities designed for staff to have fun improved their 37………………


– They discovered that = it was found that

– activities designed for staff = activities

– improved = has a favorable impact on


– Continue to read paragraph 11. According to these researchers, “It was found that fun activities had a favourable impact on performace”, meaning that fun activities improved staff performance. The answer for question 37 is “performance”. Next, “manager support for fun had a favourable impact in reducing turnover”. In this context, “manager support for fun” can be paraphrased into “manager involvement”. Thus, the answer for question 38 is “turnover”.

38. Turnover

Question: and that management involvement led to lower staff 38……………..


– management involvement = manager support for the fun

– led to = had as favorable impact in

– lower = reducing


– Continue to read paragraph 11. According to these researchers, “It was found that fun activities had a favourable impact on performace”, meaning that fun activities improved staff performance. The answer for question 37 is “performance”. Next, “manager support for fun had a favourable impact in reducing turnover”. In this context, “manager support for fun” can be paraphrased into “manager involvement”. Thus, the answer for question 38 is “turnover”.

39. Goals & 40. Characteristics

Question: They also found that the activities needed to fit with both the company’s 39…………… and the 40……………. of the staff.


– needed to fit with = must be carefully aligned with

– company’s = organizational

– on the staff = employee

Explain: Continuing to read paragraph 11, according to Tews, Michel and Stafford, the “framing of that fun” must be aligned with two things: organizational goals (paraphrased into company‟s goals) and employee characteristics. Thus, it is clear that the correct answers are “goals” and “characteristics”, respectively.

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