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Giải thích chi tiết Cambridge IELTS 15 Reading Test 3

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Để giúp các bạn thí sinh có thể cải thiện khả năng Reading trong IELTS một cách nhanh nhất thì IELTS JENNY nghĩ rằng giải thích chi tiết các đáp án của các bài Test trong Cambridge IELTS là một trong những phương pháp hiệu quả. Dưới đây là Giải thích chi tiết Cambridge IELTS 15 Reading Test 3

Questions 1-7

  On leaving school, Moore did what his father wanted him to do. TRUE

Key words: leaving school, Moore, did, father, wanted

It is mentioned in the first paragraph that “After leaving school, Moore hoped to become a sculptor, but instead he complied with his father’s wish”. To ‘comply with something’ means to ‘agree to or obey something’, so Moore agreed to do what his father wished. Thus, this statement is clearly true.

  • want = wish

2   Moore began studying sculpture in his first term at the Leeds School of Art. FALSE

Key words: began, sculpture, first term, Leeds School of Art

By skimming the proper noun ‘Leeds School of Art’, we can find information in paragraph 2 saying that “Although he wanted to study sculpture, no teacher was appointed until his second year”. This means that he could not have studied sculpture in his first year, not to mention his first term. Thus, the answer is FALSE.

3   When Moore started at the Royal College of Art, its reputation for teaching sculpture was excellent. NOT GIVEN

Key words: Royal College of Art, reputation, sculpture, excellent

By skimming the proper noun ‘Royal College of Art’, we can find information in paragraphs 2 and 3 that mention his period of study there. However, there is no information on the reputation of this school. Therefore, the answer is NOT GIVEN.

4   Moore became aware of ancient sculpture as a result of visiting London Museums. TRUE

Key words: aware, ancient sculpture, visiting, London museums

In paragraph 3, it is stated that Moore visited many London museums where “he discovered the power and beauty of ancient Egyptian and African sculpture”.

  • become aware = discover

5   The Trocadero Museum’s Mayan sculpture attracted a lot of public interest. NOT GIVEN

Key words: Trocadero Museum, Mayan sculpture, public, interest

The proper noun ‘Trocadero’ can be found through skimming in paragraph 4. It was in this museum that Moore “became fascinated” with a Mayan sculpture, but there is no information on whether the public also found it fascinating. Thus, we do not know if this Mayan sculpture attracted public interest or not.

6   Moore thought the Mayan sculpture was similar in certain respects to other stone sculptures. FALSE

Key words: Mayan sculpture, similar, other, stone sculptures

Still in paragraph 4, regarding the Mayan sculpture, Moore thought it “had a power and originality that no other stone sculpture possessed”. The word “originality” and the phrase “no other stone sculpture possessed” imply  that the Mayan sculpture was different and  unlike any others. Thus, it would be wrong to say that the Mayan sculpture was similar to other stone sculptures.

7   The artists who belonged to Unit One wanted to make modern art and architecture more popular. TRUE

Key words: artists, Unit One, modern art, architecture, popular

Unit One is mentioned in paragraph 5: “The aim of the group was to convince the English public of the merits of […] modern art and architecture”. This means that Unit One wanted to prove to the public that modern art and architecture was of good quality and excellence. In other words, they wanted to make it more popular among the public.

Questions 8-13

Moore’s career as an artist

1930s

●   Moore’s exhibition at the Leicester Galleries is criticised by the press

●   Moore is urged to offer his 8resignation… and leave the Royal College.

1940s

●   Moore turns to drawing because 9materials… for sculpting are not readily available

●   While visiting his hometown, Moore does some drawings of 10miners

●   Moore is employed to produce a sculpture of a 11family

   12collectors… start to buy Moore’s work

●   Moore’s increased 13income… makes it possible for him to do more ambitious sculptures

1950s

●   Moore’s series of bronze figures marks a further change in his style

8. Answer: resignation

Key words: urged, offer, leave, Royal College

Paragraph 6 mentions the event of Moore leaving the Royal College: “There were calls for his resignation from the Royal College, and the following year […] he left […]”. This means that people wanted Moore to leave by offering his resignation (an announcement made by Moore himself that he would leave the job). Thus, Moore was urged by his employers at the Royal College to offer his resignation.

9. Answer: materials

Key words: turns to, drawing, sculpting, not, available

Moving on to the 1940s, paragraph 8 mentions: “A shortage of materials forced him to focus on drawing”. This means that Moore focused on drawing because materials for sculpting were not available.

  • turn to = focus on
  • not available = shortage

10. Answer: miners

Key words: visiting, hometown, drawings

We know from the start of the passage that Moore’s hometown was named Castleford, so we should be looking for this proper noun. In paragraph 8 we find: “In 1942, he returned to Castleford to make a series of sketches of the miners who worked there”.

  • some drawings ~ a series of sketches

11. Answer: family

Key words: employed, produce, sculpture, of

Paragraph 9: “In 1944, Harlow, a town near London, offered Moore a commission for a sculpture depicting a family”. The phrase ‘offer someone commission’ means ‘employ someone and pay them with money’. In this case, Moore was employed to make a sculpture of a family.

  • employ = offer [someone] a commission

12. Answer: collectors

Key words: start, buy, Moore’s work

Paragraph 9: “Moore’s work became available to collectors all over the world”. While this sentence alone cannot prove that Moore’s work was ‘bought’ by collectors, it is supported by the following sentence: “the boost to his income […]”. Thus, it can be inferred that Moore gained extra income thanks to collectors buying his work.

13. Answer: income

Key words: increased, possible, ambitious, sculptures

This question directly follows question 12: “The boost to his income enabled him to take on ambitious projects”

  • increase = boost
  • make it possible for = enable

Questions 14-20

14   Section A

iii         From initial inspiration to new product

Answer: iii

Section A introduces Janssen’s device, which originally comes from the idea of “rooftop solar heating systems” in Southeast Asia. Two decades later, he “developed that basic idea he saw in Southeast Asia into a portable device…” Thus, the only appropriate heading for this section is iii – ‘From initial inspiration to new product’.

15   Section B

vi         Cleaning water from a range of sources

Answer: vi

Section B starts by mentioning the function of the desolenator: it can “take water from different places, such as the sea, rivers, boreholes and rain, and purify it for human consumption”. Thus, ‘the sea, rivers, boreholes and rain’ can be regarded as different sources of water which can be purified (cleaned) by the device. So the heading is vi – ‘Cleaning water from a range of sources’.

  • clean = purify

16   Section C

v          What makes the device different from alternatives

Answer: v

Section C explains how the device works. It starts by emphasizing that “unlike standard desalination techniques, it (the desolenator) doesn’t require a generated power supply: just sunlight”. This is considered the feature of the desolenator which makes it different from other alternatives. Thus, the heading is v – ‘What makes the device different from alternatives’.

  • different = unlike

17   Section D

x          The number of people affected by water shortages

Answer: x

The topic sentence of Section D is right at the beginning: “A recent analysis found that at least two-thirds of the world’s population lives with severe water scarcity for at least a month every year”. The section then continues by describing the hardships in such regions with water shortage, with different vocabulary for the same phenomenon: “water scarcity”, “water stress”. So the correct heading must be x – ‘The number of people affected by water shortages’.

  • water shortage = water stress = water scarcity

18   Section E

iv         The range of potential customers for the device

Answer: iv

This section names “a wide variety of users” for the desolenator, both in the developing and developed world. In the developing world, customers can be “those who cannot afford the money for the device outright and pay through microfinance, and middle-income homes that can lease their own equipment”. Meanwhile, potential markets in developed countries are “niche markets where tap water is unavailable”. Therefore, the most suitable heading for Section E would be iv – ‘The range of potential customers for the device’.

  • customers ~ users

19   Section F

viii       Profit not the primary goal

Answer: viii

This section discusses the price of the desolenator. Janssen said that his company has a “social mission” and that the main application would be in “the developing world and humanitarian sector”. By saying “this is the way we will proceed”, Janssen implies that the company will proceed to produce devices that can help those in need. Thus, it can be inferred that profit is not the primary goal for Janssen. The answer is viii.

20   Section G

i           Getting the finance for production

 Answer: i

This section mentions the funding of the project (“It has raised £340,000 in funding so far”) and its future prospects (“the company aims to be selling 1,000 units a month”). Thus, the most appropriate heading is i – ‘Getting the finance for production’.

  • finance = funding

Questions 21-26

How the Desolenator works

The energy required to operate the Desolenator comes from sunlight. The device can be used in different locations, as it has 21wheels… . Water is fed into a pipe, and a 22film… of water flows over a solar panel. The water then enters a boiler, where it turns into steam. Any particles in the water are caught in a 23filter… . The purified water comes out through one tube, and all types of 24waste… come out through another. A screen displays the 25performance… of the device, and transmits the information to the company so that they know when the Desolenator requires 26servicing… .

21. Answer: wheels

Key words: device, used, different locations, 

Section C explains how the desolenator works: “It measures 120 cm by 90 cm, and is easy to transport, thanks to its two wheels”. ‘easy to transport’ has been paraphrased into ‘can be used in different locations’. The feature that makes this possible is its ‘two wheels’. However, as we can only use ONE WORD, the answer must be ‘wheels’.

  • Answer: wheels.

22. Answer: film

Key words: water, fed, pipe, flows, solar panel

“Water enters through a pipe, and flows as a thin film between a sheet of double glazing and the surface of a solar panel”. After water enters a pipe (or is ‘fed into’ a pipe), a thin film of water flows out, between ‘a sheet of double glazing and the surface of a solar panel’. It can be inferred that the film of water flows over the surface of a solar panel. Therefore, the blank should be filled with ‘film’.

  • Answer: film.

23. Answer: filter

Key words: any, particles, water, caught in

“The device has a very simple filter to trap particles”.

  • catch = trap

So this sentence can be paraphrased into the passive voice as ‘particles are trapped/caught in a very simple filter’. The answer is ‘filter’.

  • Answer: filter.

24. Answer: waste

Key words: purified, water, tube, types, through another

This sentence distinguishes between two types of liquid that come out through two different tubes. In Section C: “There are two tubes for liquid coming out: one for the waste – salt from seawater, fluoride, etc. – and another for the distilled water”. The term ‘distilled water’ is synonymous to ‘purified water’, so the other type of liquid must be ‘waste’.

  • purified = distilled
  • Answer: waste.

25. Answer: performance

Key words: screen, displays, transmits, information, company, know, Desolenator, requires

The last sentence of section C states that: “The performance of the unit is shown on an LCD screen and transmitted to the company which provides servicing when necessary”. 

The first part of the sentence can be paraphrased using the passive voice into ‘an LCD screen shows the performance of the unit’.

  • display = show
  • device = unit

So the answer for Q25 is ‘performance’.

The second part of the sentence means that the information lets the company know when it is necessary to do servicing, i.e. when the device requires servicing. So the answer for Q26 is ‘servicing’.

  • require = necessitate (necessary)
  • Answer: performance; servicing.

26. Answer: servicing

Key words: screen, displays, transmits, information, company, know, Desolenator, requires

The last sentence of section C states that: “The performance of the unit is shown on an LCD screen and transmitted to the company which provides servicing when necessary”. 

The first part of the sentence can be paraphrased using the passive voice into ‘an LCD screen shows the performance of the unit’.

  • display = show
  • device = unit

So the answer for Q25 is ‘performance’.

The second part of the sentence means that the information lets the company know when it is necessary to do servicing, i.e. when the device requires servicing. So the answer for Q26 is ‘servicing’.

  • require = necessitate (necessary)
  • Answer: performance; servicing.

Questions 27-31

27   In fairy tales, details of the plot

C     show considerable global variation.

Key words: fairy tales, details, plot

The very first sentence of the passage mentions that: “[…] the same story often takes a variety of forms in different parts of the world”.

Thus, the matching answer is C, and the complete sentence is “In fairy tales, details of the plot show considerable global variation.”

  • global = world
  • variation = variety = different

28   Tehrani rejects the idea that the useful lessons for life in fairy tales

B     are the reason for their survival.

Key words: Tehrani, rejects, useful, lessons, life

Paragraph 2 mentions: “the idea that they contain cautionary messages”. Here, ‘cautionary messages’ refer to the warnings or lessons for life, such as listening to your mother and avoid talking to strangers. This idea may be “what we find interesting” about fairy tales, and why it has survived till this day. However, Tehrani’s research suggests otherwise. Therefore, it can be understood that : Tehrani rejects the idea that the useful, survival-relevant lessons in fairy tales are the reason for their survival.

29   Various theories about the social significance of fairy tales

F     have been developed without factual basis.

Key words: theories, social, significance, fairy tales

Still in paragraph 2: “That hasn’t stopped anthropologists, folklorists and other academics devising theories to explain the importance of fairy tales in human society”.

Thus, there are various theories about the social significance of fairy tales devised by various academics. However, according to Tehrani, “’We have this huge gap in our knowledge about the history and prehistory of storytelling”, which implies that such theories are developed without full knowledge on the topic, i.e. without factual basis.  So, the complete sentence is:  Various theories about the social significance of fairy tales have been developed without factual basis.

  • develop = devise
  • significance = importance
  • social = in society
  • factual basis = knowledge

30   Insights into the development of fairy tales

A     may be provided through methods used in biological research.

Key words: insights, development, fairy tales

It is stated in the last sentence of paragraph 2 that: “Now Tehrani has found a way to test these ideas, borrowing a technique from evolutionary biologists”. What Tehrani wants to discover is how fairy tales have “evolved” and “survived”, using the same methods of ‘phylogenetic analysis’ used by biologists (paragraph 3). Therefore, it can be understood that the development or evolution of fairy tales can be studied through methods used by biologists.  This gives the correct sentence:  Insights into the development of fairy tales may be provided through methods used in biological research.

  • development = evolution (evolve)
  • biological research = biologist

31   All the fairy tales analysed by Tehrani

    were originally spoken rather than written.

Key words: analysed, Tehrani

Paragraph 4 mentions that Tehrani focused on analysing variants of two fairy tales: Little Red Riding Hood and The Wolf and The Kids, and “he ended up with 58 stories recorded from oral traditions”. Thus, it can be inferred that these fairy tales were traditionally spoken rather than written.  The complete sentence is:  All the fairy tales analysed by Tehrani were originally spoken rather than written.

  • analyse = analysis
  • spoken = oral
  • originally = tradition (traditionally)

Questions 32-36

Phylogenetic analysis of Little Red Riding Hood

Tehrani used techniques from evolutionary biology to find out if 32links… existed among 58 stories from around the world. He also wanted to know which aspects of the stories had fewest 33variations…, as he believed these aspects would be the most important ones. Contrary to other beliefs, he found that some 34events… that were included in a story tended to change over time, and that the middle of a story seemed no more important than the other parts. He was also surprised that parts of a story which seemed to provide some sort of 35warning… were unimportant. The aspect that he found most important in a story’s survival was 36horror

32. Answer: D

Key words: techniques, evolutionary biologists, existed, 58 stories

Tehrani’s use of ‘phylogenetic analysis’ can be found from paragraph 3 onwards.  This process is used by biologists to “work out the evolutionary history, development and relationships among groups of organisms…”

Paragraph 4: “Once his phylogenetic analysis had established that they (the stories) were indeed related, he used the same methods to explore how they have developed and altered over time”, meaning that the phylogenetic analysis was aimed at testing the relations, or links, among these 58 stories. Thus, the answer for this question is D – ‘links’.

  • links = relationships

33. Answer: F

Key words: aspects, fewest, believed, these, most important

Paragraph 5: “First he tested some assumptions about which aspects of the story alter least as it evolves, indicating their importance”. This sentence can be paraphrased into “he tested some assumptions about which aspects of the story had fewest alterations/variations, as this would indicate the most important aspects”.

  • variation = alter (alteration)

Therefore, the answer is F – ‘variations’.

34. Answer: B

Key words: contrary, beliefs, some, included, change,

There is a contrast between what folklorists believe and what Tehrani found. Still in paragraph 5, it is stated: “Folklorists believe that what happens in a story is more central to the story than the characters in it”, while we find in paragraph 6 that “Tehrani found no significant difference in the rate of evolution of incidents compared with that of characters”. This means that he found both incidents (what happens) and characters in a story change over time, not just the characters as suggested by folklorists. Thus, the answer should be something synonymous to ‘incidents’, which can only be B – ‘events’.

  • change over time = evolve (rate of evolution)
  • events = incidents

35. Answer: C

Key words: surprised, parts, story, provide, unimportant

In paragraph 7, what was a “really big surprise” for Tehrani was that he found cautionary elements to be “just as flexible as seemingly trivial details” in “hunter-gatherer folk tales”.

This means that the elements which seem to provide cautionary, survival-relevant information may also be trivial, or unimportant, because they are not always fixed in the story.  Although they may warn of “possible dangers” that may be faced in the environment, these parts of a story have surprisingly changed over time.  Thus, the answer should be synonymous to ‘caution’ or ‘survival’. The most appropriate would be C – ‘warning’.

  • story = tale
  • unimportant = trivial

36. Answer: G

Key words: aspect, most important, story’s survival

The end of paragraph 7 features a rhetorical question: “What, then, is important enough to be reproduced from generation to generation?”. If a story is “reproduced from generation to generation, this means that the story survives for a long time. The answer, which was previously thought to be cautionary information/warnings, is actually “fear” (paragraph 8). The stories which survive are usually “blood-thirsty and gruesome”, adjectives that we associate with horror and fear. Thus, the answer must be G – ‘horror’ because it has a similar meaning.

  • horror = fear

Questions 37-40

37   What method did Jamie Tehrani use to test his ideas about fairy tales?

B   He looked at many different forms of the same basic story.

Key words:  method, Tehrani, test, ideas, fairy tales

As mentioned in paragraph 4, Tehrani analysed 58 variants of two fairy tales in their oral form: “he ended up with 58 stories recorded from oral traditions”. Thus, the answer is clearly B, because these stories are variants of the same basic story.  A is incorrect because he only examined oral stories; C is also incorrect as the stories are clearly related; D is not discussed in the passage.

38   When discussing Tehrani’s views, Jack Zipes suggests that

D   features of stories only survive if they have a deeper significance.

Key words:  Tehrani’s views, Jack Zipes, suggests

By skimming the proper noun ‘Jack Zipes’, we can find his opinion in paragraph 9: “’Even if they’re gruesome, they won’t stick unless they matter”. Here, ‘gruesome’ is synonymous to ‘fearful, horrific’. Zipes argues that such gruesome features/details of fairy tales will not last long unless they have some meaning or significance in the story.

  • stick = survive 
  • have significance = matter 

Thus, the answer must be D.

39   Why does Tehrani refer to Chinese and Japanese fairy tales?

A   to indicate that Jack Zipes’ theory is incorrect

Key words: Tehrani, Chinese, Japanese, fairy tales

Still in paragraph 9, Tehrani defends his idea against the view of Jack Zipes. Tehrani “points out that although this is often the case in Western versions, it is not always true elsewhere”. The case here refers to the opinion of Jack Zipes that all fairy tales have “the perennial theme of women as victims”. Tehrani shows that this theme is not present in Chinese and Japanese fairy tales, in which the woman is often actually the villain, instead of victim. Thus, Tehrani refers to these fairy tales to argue that Jack Zipes’ theory is incorrect.

40   What does Mathias Clasen believe about fairy tales?

A   They are a safe way of learning to deal with fear.

Key words: Mathias Clasen, believe

The last paragraph mentions Mathias Clasen’s belief: “scary stories teach us what it feels like to be afraid without having to experience real danger”. In other words, fairy tales let us learn about fear in a safer way (rather than experiencing real danger). The answer is therefore A.

The other answers are incorrect for the following reasons:

B is incorrect because “we seek out entertainment that’s designed to scare us”. This means humans seek out, not avoid, fairy tales with fearful details.

C is irrelevant. While it is mentioned that “’Habits and morals change”, Mathias Clasen does not say these are reflected in fairy tales.

D is incorrect because fairy tales with fearful features help us to “build up resistance to negative emotions”, thereby INCREASING (not REDUCING) our ability to deal with real-world problems.

Nếu bạn muốn xem phần giải thích chi tiết của các bài Cambridge IELTS Reading Test thì đăng ký tại đây: Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Reading with Answers

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