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Question: Henderson rarely visited the area around Press estate when he was younger.
– Press estate = in the area
– when he was younger = his childhood
– visited = spent
Explain: We should look for the piece of information related to Press estate, using the skim and scan skill. It can be found in the first paragraph. It is stated that Alexander (Henderson) “spent much of his childhood in the area”, which means he often stayed in the Press estate when he was younger. This is contradictory to the above statement. Therefore, it is FALSE.
Question: Henderson pursued a business career because it was what his family wanted.
– pursued a business career = … to become an accountant
– because it was what his family wanted = to please his family
Explain: In paragraph 2, it is mentioned that Henderson “never liked the prospect of a business career” but “stayed with it to please his family”. This means that he only pursued a business career because his family wanted him to do so. Thus, it is clear that the statement is TRUE.
- NOT GIVEN
Question: Henderson and Notman were surprised by the results of their 1865 experiment.
Keywords: Henderson, Notman, surprised, results, 1865, experiment
Explain: We should look for the year 1865 in the passage, which is in paragraph 3. Here, we know that Henderson and Notman carried out an experiment with magnesium flares. There is no reference, however, to the results of the experiment or about the men’s reaction towards such results. The information is not given.
Question: There were many similarities between Henderson’s early landscapes and those of Notman.
Keywords: many, similarities, Henderson’s, early, landscapes, Notman
Explain: The comparison between Henderson’s and Notman’s landscapes can be
- NOT GIVEN
Question: The studio that Henderson opened in 1866 was close to his home.
Keywords: studio, Henderson, opened, 1866, close, home
Explain: We should look for the year 1866 in the passage. It can be easily found in the first sentence of paragraph 5, where it is stated that Henderson opened a studio. But the author does not mention anything about its location or the distance from the studio to Henderson’s home, so the statement is NOT GIVEN.
Question: Henderson gave up portraiture so that he could focus on taking photographs of scenery.
– gave up = dropped
– focus on = specialize in
– taking photographs of scenery = landscape photography and other views
Explain: In the following sentence in paragraph 5, it is mentioned that “he dropped portraiture to specialize in landscape photography and other views”. The word “specialize” implies that he wanted to focus his efforts on only one kind of photography, so this statement is TRUE.
Question: When Henderson began work for the Intercolonial Railway, the Montreal to Halifax line had been finished.
Keywords: began, work, Intercolonial Railway, Montreal to Halifax line, finished = completed
Explain: Using the skim and scan skill, we can locate the phrase “Intercolonial Railway” in the middle of paragraph 7, then we read from there. In 1875, there was “a commission from the railway” to Henderson to record structures along the Montreal to Halifax line, which can be considered his work for the Intercolonial Railway. It is said that the line is “almost-completed”, suggesting that at the time it had not been finished yet. Therefore, the statement is FALSE.
Question: Henderson’s last work as a photographer was with the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Keywords: last, work, photographer, Canadian Pacific Railway
Explain: “Canadian Pacific Railway” (CPR) is mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph 7 and the entire paragraph 8. It is stated that Henderson took photos along the railway in summer 1892, and he continued until 1897 before retiring completely from photography. Thus, it can be understood that his last photography work (before retiring) was with the CPR. The statement is TRUE.
Question: was born in Scotland in 1831 – father was a 9…………….
– Was born in Scotland in 1831
– father was a = the son of a
Explain: In the first sentence of the passage, it is stated that Henderson was “the son of a successful merchant”. In other words, his father was a successful merchant. Because we can only write ONE WORD, the answer should be “merchant”.
Question: people bought Henderson’s photos because photography took up considerable time and the 10…………. was heavy
– took up considerable time = time-consuming
– heavy = the weight of
Explain: In paragraph 5, we know that there was a demand for Henderson’s landscape photos. People bought his photos because “there was little competing hobby or amateur photography”, suggesting that at the time, not many people took photographs. Henderson, therefore, did not have much competition from amateur photographers or people who took photographs for a hobby. There are two reasons for this: “time-consuming techniques” and the “weight of the equipment”. The former can be understood as “taking up considerable time”, and the latter as “heavy equipment”. Thus, the answer is “equipment”.
Question: the photographs Henderson sold were 11……………. or souvenirs Travelling.
– the photographs Henderson sold = buy photographs
– souvenirs travelling = souvenirs of a trip
Explain: Still in paragraph 5, it is stated that “people wanted to buy photographs as souvenirs of a trip or as gifts”. Therefore, it is clear that the blank should be filled with “gifts”.
Question: took many trips along eastern rivers in a 12………….
– Took many trips = often travelled
– Along eastern rivers = …and other noted eastern rivers
Explain: We can use the first point in “travelling as a professional photographer” as a cue: it is stated in the first sentence of paragraph 7. Subsequently, “eastern rivers” are mentioned, as Henderson “often travelled by canoe” on these rivers. Thus, the answer is “canoe”.
Question: worked for CPR in 1885 and photographed the 13……….. and the railway at Rogers Pass
Keywords: photographed the = tool photographs of the
Explain: As we have learned in question 8, the information about Henderson’s work for CPR can be found in paragraph 7 and 8. The year 1885 is mentioned in paragraph 7, so we should read from there. It is stated that he took photos of “the mountains and the progress of construction” at Rogers Pass. The construction here refers to that of the railway, so the remaining item is “mountains”, which is the answer.
Question: why some people avoided hospitals in the 19th century
Keywords: why, avoided, hospitals, 19th century, avoid = steer clear of
Explain: Information about 19th century hospitals can be found in paragraphs D, E and F. Paragraphs D and E discuss the designs and performance of hospitals in the 19th century, but we are looking for a reason why people avoided hospitals. Paragraph F mentions that “the prosperous steered clear of hospitals”. “The prosperous” refers to rich people, and can be called “some people”. The phrasal verb “steer clear of” means “keep away from”, or in other words, “avoid”. Therefore, the reason why some people avoided hospitals in the 19thcentury was “hospital fever”. The correct answer is F.
Question: a suggestion that the popularity of tall buildings is linked to prestige
– is linked to = as symbols of
– prestige = status
– Tall buildings = skyscrapers
Explain: In paragraph C, the author says that skyscrapers are symbols of status and not practical, implying that skyscrapers (tall buildings) are popular these days because people associate them with status, or prestige. Therefore, the answer is C.
Question: a comparison between the circulation of air in a 19th-century building and modern standards
Keywords: Comparison: similar to, Circulation of air = air changes
Explain: In paragraph E: “19th century hospital wards could… – that’s similar to the performance of a modern-day operating theatre”. The word “similar” suggests a comparison, and “modern-day operating theatre” can be understood as modern standards. This sentence discusses the capacity of buildings to generate air changes, which is the circulation of air inside a building. Thus, this sentence is a comparison between the circulation of air in 19th century hospitals and modern buildings. The correct paragraph is E.
Question: how Short tested the circulation of air in a 19th century building
Keywords: Short, tested, 19th–century, building, circulation of air = ventilation
Explain: We can find information about Short’s test in paragraph D. His test was “to put pathogens in the airstreams” of a 19th century hospital. He found that “the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm”. This means that he tested the circulation of air in the hospital (of 19th century).
Question: an implication that advertising led to the large increase in the use of air conditioning
– advertising = marketed
– The large increase in use = the widespread introduction of
Explain: Paragraph B mentions the “widespread introduction of air conditioning systems”, which is the result of marketing by their inventors. Therefore, it can be paraphrased that advertising led to the large increase in the use of air conditioning.
Question: Professor Alan Short examined the work of John Shaw Billings, who influenced the architectural 19………… of hospitals to ensure they had good ventilation.
John Shaw Billings … of hospitals to ensure they had good ventilation = of ingeniously ventilated hospitals
Have good ventilation = get fresh air
Explain: The part containing information about John Shaw Billings (JSB) can be found in paragraph D. The first sentence mentions that Short’s book “highlights” the art and science of ventilating buildings, including a study of the designs of JSB for a hospital in Baltimore in the 19th century. This suggests that in order to publish the book, Short must have had examined JSB’s work. Later, in the last sentence of paragraph E, Short describes JSB’s designs and other designs of 19th century buildings, stating that “up to half the volume of the building was given over to ensuring everyone got fresh air”. Therefore, the answer is “designs”.
- pathogens, 21. tuberculosis
Question: He calculated that 20……….. in the air coming from patients suffering from 21……….. would not have harmed other patients.
– in the air = in the airstreams
– coming from = modelled for
– Patients suffering from… = someone with
– Would not have harmed other patients = would have kept other patients safe from harm
– In the last sentence of paragraph D, Short explained his findings: “We put pathogens in the airstreams, modeled for someone with tuberculosis … the ventilation systems in the room would have kept other patients safe from harm”. So, patients with tuberculosis (TB) would release pathogens in the air when they coughed – these minute organisms would harm other patients unless there was good ventilation. Short modeled this in his experiment. The answer for 20 is “pathogens”.
– The purpose of this experiment was to test whether the system could prevent TB pathogens from spreading. Therefore, it is clear that answer for question 21 would be “tuberculosis”.
Question: He also found that the air in 22……….. in hospitals could change as often as in a modern operating theatre.
He also found that = we discovered that
Could change = generate up to 24 air changes
as often as = that’s similar to
modern operating theatre = modern-day, computer-controlled operating theatre.
Explain: The first sentence of paragraph E states that “19th-century hospital wards could generate up to 24 air changes an hour – that’s similar to the performance of a modern-day, computer-controlled operating theatre”. This means that the air in hospitals wards could change as often as in a modern operating theatre. Thus, the word in the blank is “wards”.
Question: He suggests that energy use could be reduced by locating more patients in 23…………… areas.
– Areas = wards
– Energy use could be reduced = at a fraction of the energy cost
– at a fraction of the energy cost = at a very low price
Explain: In the middle of paragraph E, Short states that communal wards “would work just as well…at a fraction of the energy cost”. “Communal wards” imply that more than one patient is located in each ward. “Fraction” implies that energy cost would be reduced, because less energy would be used. Therefore, the answer is “communal” areas.
- public, 25. Miasmas
Question: A major reason for improving ventilation in 19th century hospitals was the demand from the 24………….. for protection against bad air, known as 25…………..
– A major reason for improving ventilation in 19th century hospitals = Much of the ingenuity present in 19th-century hospital and building design
– Demand = clamour for
– from the = was driven by a
– For protection against = could protect against
– Bad air = toxic air
Explain: The first sentence of paragraph F states that much of the ventilation demand was “driven by a panicked public clamouring for buildings that could protect against … miasmas – toxic air that spread disease”. The phrasal verb “clamour for” means “demand or request something passionately”. In this context, it can be understood that the public demanded proper ventilation to protect them from toxic air (or “bad air”) known as miasmas. Thus, the answers are “public” and “miasmas”, respectively.
Question: These were blamed for the spread of disease for hundreds of years, including epidemics of 26…………… in London and Paris in the middle of the 19th century.
– Hundreds of years = centuries
– Epidemics = outbreaks
– In London and Paris
– Spread of disease = spread of infection
– In the middle of the 19th century = from the Middle Ages
Explain: The following sentence states that miasmas were feared as the cause of disease and epidemics for centuries. The author also names two epidemics: the Middle Ages infection and the cholera outbreaks in London and Paris in the 1850s (or mid-19th century). The latter is the information we need, so the answer is “cholera”.
vi What people are increasingly expected to do
– Are increasingly expected to do = are told that we ought to
– What = organise our company, our home life, our week, our day and even our sleep, …
– This section describes the popular opinion, or belief, that we ought to organize everything in our life to become more productive. Part of this can be considered “recommendations concerning business activities” (heading iii), but it also concerns other aspects of life besides work. In addition, this practice has only been widespread in recent times, not “early” times, so iii cannot be the answer.
– The most suitable heading would be vi – What people are increasingly expected to do. More “than at any other time in human history”, “We are told that we ought to organise our company, our home life, our week, our day and even our sleep…” So, increasingly (more than at any other time), people are told to (= they are expected to) become more organised.
i Complaints about the impact of a certain approach
– Complaints = claim to be dissatisfied with
– The impact of a certain approach = the way their work is structured and the way they are managed
Explain: While section A introduces the structured and organised approach to our lives, section B mentions its drawbacks. “A large proportion of workers…claimed to be dissatisfied with the way their work is structured and the way they are managed”. So i – Complaints about the impact of a certain approach is the correct answer.
iii Early recommendations concerning business activities
Explain: Section C is about the history of the science of management, with Frederick Taylor being one of the pioneers in the early part of the 20th century. So the only appropriate heading for this would be iii – Early recommendations concerning business activities.
ii Fundamental beliefs that are in fact incorrect
– Fundamental beliefs = basic assumptions (that order is a necessary condition for productivity)
– Are in fact incorrect = is misguided
Explain: This section discusses the “misguided” assumptions about efficiency. The emphasis on order has led to people’s efforts to become organised without understanding that organisation does not always bring increased productivity. These basic assumptions can be considered “fundamental beliefs that are in fact incorrect”. Thus, the answer is ii.
ix Evidence that a certain approach can have more disadvantages than advantages.
– Evidence = recent studies
– A certain approach = order
– More disadvantages than advantages = has diminishing returns
Explain: Section E mentions the term “diminishing returns” of order, which basically means that the disadvantages of organising may eventually outweigh the advantages at some point: “if the cost of formally structuring something outweighs the benefit of doing it, then that thing ought not to be formally structured”. This has been shown in recent studies, so there is evidence behind this. Thus, the correct heading is ix – Evidence that a certain approach can have more disadvantages than advantages.
vii How to achieve outcomes that are currently impossible.
Keywords: Are currently impossible = would never be reached
Explain: This section suggests that “the best approach is to create an environment devoid of structure”, which “can lead to new solutions that, under conventionally structured environments, would never be reached”. This implies that a new approach can achieve outcomes that are impossible under the current practice (a conventionally structured environment). The answer is vii.
iv Organisations that put a new approach into practice.
Explain: Section G discusses the new approach – disorganisation, which has been embraced by many companies: Google, General Electric, Oticon, etc. Thus, the heading for this section is iv – Organisations that put a new approach into practice.
– Organisations = companies
– Put into practice = embrace
viii Neither approach guarantees continuous improvement
Explain: This section warns readers that “…disorder, much like order, also seems to have diminishing utility, and can also have detrimental effects on performance if overused”. Therefore, they should only be used “so far as it is useful”. So the only appropriate heading for this is viii – Neither approach guarantees continuous improvement.
Question: Numerous training sessions are aimed at people who feel they are not ……………….. enough.
– Numerous training sessions = countless seminars and workshops management, project management and self-organisation
– Feel they are not …enough = to becoming more…
Explain: Section A mentions “countless seminars and workshops”, which can also be called “numerous training sessions”, that help people to organise better, and hence become more productive. Thus, it can be inferred that these are aimed to help people who are not productive enough. The answer is “productive”.
Question: Being organised appeals to people who regard themselves as …………..
– Who regard themselves as = self-proclaimed
– Appeals to = much to the delight of
– Being organised = to get everything right
Explain: The last paragraph of section A suggests that the idea of organising everything has become popular among business leaders and entrepreneurs, “much to the delight of” perfectionists. This means that being organised appeals to perfectionists. So the answer is “perfectionists”.
Question: Many people feel …………. with aspects of their work.
– Many people = a large proportion of workers
– Feel = claim to be
– With aspects of their work = with the way their work is structured and the way they are managed
Explain: Section B mentions that “a large proportion of workers…claimed to be dissatisfied” with two aspects of their work: the way it is structured and the way they are managed. Therefore, the answer is “dissatisfied”.
Question: Both businesses and people aim at order without really considering its value.
– Both businesses and people = businesses and people
– Aim at order = spend time and money organizing themselves for the sake of organizing
– Without really consider = rather than actually looking at its value = the end goal and usefulness of such an effort
Explain: We can find information concerning “businesses and people” in the last sentence of section D: they “spend time and money organising” rather than actually “looking at the usefulness of such an effort”. So businesses and people aim to be organised (aim at order), but they do not really consider its usefulness (value). Thus, it is clear that the statement is TRUE.
Question: Innovation is most successful if the people involved have distinct roles.
– Innovation = innovating
– Is most successful = the best approach
– If the people involved = enable everyone involved
– Have disctinct # engage as one organic group
Explain: By using the skim and scan skill, we find that “innovation” is mentioned in the first sentence of section F. Here, it is stated that “the best approach is to create an environment devoid of structure and hierarchy”. This means that innovation is most successful when people are involved as the whole group, rather than as distinct roles found in a structure and hierarchy. Thus, this statement is FALSE.
- NOT GIVEN
Question: Google was inspired to adopt flexibility by the success of General Electric.
Keywords: Google, inspired, adopt, flexibility, success, General Electric
Explain: The last paragraph of section G contains information about General Electric and Google. It is mentioned that both of them have embraced disorganisation, or flexibility, in their companies. However, the author does not mention anything about General Electric’s success or the relation between Google and General Electric. So we cannot say that Google adopted flexibility because of General Electric. The answer is NOT GIVEN.
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